A. Purpose and Scope
Effective hazardous energy control procedures will protect employees during machine and equipment servicing and maintenance where the unexpected energizing, start up or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury. Hazards being guard against include being caught in, being crushed by, being struck by, being thrown from, or contacting live electrical circuits/parts. The procedure herein established (II – VIII) will insure that machines and equipment are properly isolated from hazardous or potentially hazardous energy sources during servicing and maintenance and properly protect against energizing as required by 29 CFR 1910.147. While any employee is exposed to contact with parts of fixed electrical equipment or circuits that have been de-energized, the circuits energizing the parts shall be locked out and tagged in accordance with the requirements of 29 CFR 1910.333 (b) (2). SEE THIS OSHA STANDARD. Only when disconnecting means or other devices are incapable of being locked out, and until lockout capability is provided, will a tagout procedure (without lockout), be utilized. (SEE TAGOUT PROCEDURES)
Authorized employee - a person who locks out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes an authorized employee when that employee’s duties include performing servicing or maintenance that exposes him/her to potentially hazardous energy.
Affected employee - an employee whose job requires him/her to operate/use a machine or equipment or work in an area in which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout.
Energy isolating device - a mechanical device that physically prevents the transmission or release of energy, including but not limited to the following: A manually operated electrical circuit breaker; a disconnect switch; a manually operated switch by which the conductors of a circuit can be disconnected from all ungrounded supply conductors, and in addition, no pole can be operated independently; a line valve; a block; and any similar device used to block or isolate energy. Push buttons, selector switches, and other control circuit type devices are not energy isolating devices.
Other employee - an employee whose work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be utilized.
For additional definitions see 29 CFR 1910.147 (b).
C. Authorization / Responsibility
Department Head or Qualified Designee
1. Provide training to authorized/affected employees on lockout/tagout procedures.
2. Inspect energy control procedures and practices at least annually to ensure that general and specific lockout/tagout procedures are being followed.
- Inspections must be carried out by persons other than those employees directly utilizing energy control procedures.
- Inspections will include a review of each authorized employee’s responsibilities.
- Certify that periodic inspections have been performed
(See: LOCKOUT/TAGOUT INSPECTION FORM)
3. Maintain a record of equipment, machinery, and operations that require the use of lockout/tagout procedures. The record will include the location, description, power source, and primary hazards of equipment/machinery, a list of the primary operators/maintenance personnel, and a list of lockout/tagout equipment that is used and maintained on site.
Department Head or Qualified Designee: Ensures that each supervisor adheres to procedures.
1. Locks, chains, wedges, or other hardware which meet the requirements defined in 1910.147 (c) (5) (ii) shall be provided by the company.
2. Lockout devices shall be singularly identified. They shall be the only devices used for controlling energy and shall not be used for other purposes.
3. The lockout devices shall indicate the identity of the employee applying the devices.
4. All machines/equipment shall be locked out to protect against accidental or inadvertent operation when such operation could cause injury to personnel. Lockout will also apply when working on or near exposed de-energized electrical circuits / parts.
5. No employee shall attempt to operate any switch, valve, or other energy – isolating device which is locked out.
6. Each lockout device shall only be removed by the employee who applied the device. (Exception: see VI. B)
E. Lockout Procedures and Techniques
Preparation for Shutdown
1. In preparation for lockout, an initial survey must be made to locate and identify all energy isolating devices to be certain which switch, valve, or other energy isolating devices apply to the machine / equipment to be locked out. More than one energy source (electrical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, thermal, or others) may be involved.
2. Before an authorized or affected employee turns off a machine or piece of equipment, the authorized employee must have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy to be controlled, and the methods or means to control the energy.
Note: If work to be performed involves employees working on or near exposed de-energized electrical parts. (See 29 CFR 1910.333).
Machine or Equipment Shutdown
1. All affected employees shall be notified that a lockout system is to be utilized and the reason for it, before the controls are applied.
2. If the machine or equipment is operating, shut it down by normal stopping procedure (Depress stop button, open toggle switch, etc.)
Machine or Equipment Isolation
Physically locate and operate the switch, valve, or other energy isolating devices so that the equipment is isolated from its energy sources and apply adequate hardware.
Lockout Device Application
1. Authorized employees shall lockout the energy isolating devices with assigned individual locks.
2. Lockout devices shall be applied so that they will hold the energy isolating devices in a “Neutral” or “Off” position.
All stored or residual energy in rams, flywheels, springs, pneumatic, or hydraulic systems, etc. shall be blocked or dissipated. If there is a possibility of accumulation of stored energy, verification of isolation must be continued until servicing or maintenance is completed.
Verification of Isolation
Prior to starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked and after ensuring that no personnel are exposed, the authorized employee shall operate the push button or normal operating controls to verify that the appropriate equipment or machine has been de-energized and make certain it will not operate.
CAUTION: Return Operating Controls to the “Neutral” or “Off” Position after the Test.
The machine/equipment is now locked out. Servicing or maintenance may now occur.
F. Removal of Lockout Devices
1. After the servicing and / or maintenance is completed and before the lockout devices are removed and energy is restored, the sequence of activities in Appendix F shall be completed by the authorized employee(s).
2. If the authorized employee who applied the lock is not available, the supervisor shall take the following steps:
- Clear the machine or equipment of tools and materials.
- Remove employees from the machine or equipment.
- Remove the lockout device.
- Energize and proceed with testing or positioning.
- De-energize all systems and reapply energy control measures in accordance with procedures set forth under SECTION V.
G. Additional Requirements
In the proceeding steps, if more than one individual is required to lockout machines/equipment (group lockout), the following procedures shall be implemented to provide protection to all employees.
1. A primary authorized employee will be designated and responsible for the number of people working under the protection of the group lockout device. The primary authorized employee will ascertain the exposure status of the individual member participating in the group lockout to ensure continuity of protection for each individual. In addition, this primary authorized employee will be responsible for notifying affected employees before and after lockout procedures are performed.
2. Each authorized employee will place his/her own personal lockout device on the energy isolating device(s).
3. When an energy- isolating device cannot accept multiple locks, a multiple lockout system must be used.
Shift or Personnel Changes - If a lockout procedure will extend into the following shift, the authorized employee who originally placed the lock will remove it and it will immediately be replaced with the lock of the authorized employee who is to continue the repair or maintenance on that equipment or machine for the following shift.
Cord and Plug Connected Equipment - If servicing or maintenance is performed on cord and plug connected equipment the following procedure shall be performed to protect employees.
1. Unplug equipment from its electrical socket.
2. Place a lockable cover over the plug and a lock on the plug cover during machine or equipment servicing or maintenance.
Outside Contractors - If outside contractors perform servicing or maintenance that requires lockout, the Safety Director shall take the following steps.
1. Inform the outside contractor of our company’s lockout procedures and supply them with a copy.
2. Obtain and review a copy of the outside contractor’s lockout procedures.
3. Ensure that our employees understand and comply with the responsibilities and prohibitions of the outside contractor’s lockout procedure.
1. Authorized employees shall receive training covering:
- Recognition of hazardous energy sources.
- Types and magnitude of hazardous energy in the workplace.
- Methods, devices, and procedures used to lockout, verify lockout, and otherwise control hazardous energy on all pieces or types of equipment (including cord and plug connected equipment).
- Procedures for removing locks and returning a machine or piece of equipment to operation.
- Transfer of lockout responsibilities.
- Group lockout procedures.
2. Affected and all “other” employees shall receive training so that they are able to:
- Recognize when energy control procedures are being implemented, and
- Understanding the purpose of the procedures and the importance of not attempting to start up or use the machine / equipment that has been locked out.
Retraining - Authorized and affected employees shall receive retraining in proper application of lockout procedures when there is a change in:
- Job assignment(s) that expose an authorized employee to new hazards or lockout procedures.
- Machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard or require modified lockout procedures.
- Energy control procedures for a piece or type of equipment.
- Or when it becomes known that an employee incorrectly performs lockout procedures.
Retraining will re-establish employee proficiency in lockout, and ensure that employees are knowledgeable of new or revised procedures. All retraining will be certified.
1. An inspection of the energy control procedures will be conducted annually.
2. Energy control procedures for each machine or type of machine must be inspected.
3. The inspection shall include a review of lockout responsibilities with each individual authorized to lockout the machine/equipment.
4. The person who performs the inspection must be authorized to perform the lockout procedures being inspected. The inspector cannot, however, review his/her own use of lockout procedures.
5. Any deviations or inadequacies identified shall be immediately addresses.
1. When a disconnecting means or other energy isolating device is incapable of being locked out, a tagout system shall be utilized. A tag used without a lock, shall be supplemented by at least on additional safety measure that provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by use of a lock such as opening an additional disconnecting device, removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch or the removal of a valve handle to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energizing.
2. Only tags furnished by the company that meet the requirements of 1910.147 (c) (5) (ii) and (iii) shall be used.
3. All employees shall be trained in the use and limitations of tags as described in 1910.147 (c) (7) (ii) and (d) (4) (iii).
4. All employees must be able to understand the hazard warning written on the tags such as: DO NOT START, DO NOT OPEN, DO NOT CLOSE, DO NOT ENERGIZE, or DO NOT OPERATE.
5. On machines and equipment where tagout is used in lieu of lockout, the Periodic Inspection required by 1910.147 (c) (6) shall include the affected as well as the authorized employee(s). The periodic inspection shall be certified.
6. If tagout is used all other lockout rules and procedures apply.
NOTE: Should the machine / equipment required upgrade or modification, it will have lockable switches, fittings, valves, etc. added so that it becomes possible to lockout.
The maintenance department supervisor will maintain inspection records, as well as all LOCKOUT/TAGOUT INSPECTION FORMS
Training records will be maintained and include an outline of topics covered and a sign in sheet of those employees attending.