Late Perpendicular

During the Tudor period Gothic Perpendicular architecture remained important. The window tracery of Gothic Perpendicular architecture had straight vertical and horizontal lines. The window transoms were also emphasized. The arches were flat and the vaulting was ornate and usually of the fan type. Crenellated flat roofs and tall square styles of roofs were equally prevalent.

With the Act of Supremacy of 1534 proclaiming the king as the supreme head of the Church of England, older churches became national cathedrals or were left to become ruins. Monasteries were suppressed (1536-40) and properties were distributed among the courtiers of Henry VIII. Some monastic treasuries were devoted to the foundation of colleges and grammar schools. Former monasteries were sometimes torn down to provide building materials for new structures. Others were transformed into manor houses for the new trading families and court favorites. The cloisters of these buildings were made into courtyards.

Lacock Abbey was founded as an abbey for women by Ela Deveraux,Countess of Salisbury in 1232. It was renovated as a Tudor residence by the artisan John Chapman for William Sharington. Sharington acquired the Abbey in 1540 and later became the Sheriff of Wiltshire.

Situated on the north bank of the Thames River, 23 km from central London, Hampton Court Palace in Surrey was commissioned by Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, 1514-1529. It was completed for Henry VIII between 1529-1547, after Wolsey fell out of favor. The sections built in the Baroque style were by Sir Christopher Wren, 1688-1702.

The areas of Hampton Court that survive from 1530s include:

  • The Great Hall
  • the kitchens
  • the domestic buildings on the north side of the palace
  • the in-door tennis court, converted into lodgings in the 17th century
  • Prince's Lodgings (for the future Edward VI, the son of Jane Seymour)
  • The astronomical clock from 1540, designed by Nicholas Kratzer and made by Nicholas Oursian, shows the hours, days of the month, the time of high tide, the phases of the moon, and the signs of the zodiac. Ignoring Copernicus, Kratzer and Oursian had the sun travel around the earth.

    At Hampton Court the lofty gatehouses and complex rooflines refer to the medieval past. Heraldry was also used for the external ornamentation. Large windows reinforced the image of wealth.

    Compton Wynates, a country house built by a companion of Henry VIII in a deserted village (dating from the enclosures), has a design that combines fortification and domestic architecture.